An address specifies a certain Position in memory which contains a single
Accu = Accumulator. A battery which can be recharged.
An array consists of several
which are indexed by a number beginning with 0. The variables in the array have the same name.
Example: DIM A(4) consists of 5 variables A, A(0) to A(5). There are more dimensional arrays, too,
which have more indexes: DIM A(2,3). Now you have A(0,0) A(0,1)... A(2,0)... A(2,3)
The ASCII code assigns a character to each
With this it was possible to print readable characters on the screen! Example: The code of
A is 65.
An assembler is a
which allows the easy editing of
BASIC is a simple programming language which is often used by
The commands of this language are easy to understand.
Here you can get the BASIC commands for PC-1360
Baud means switchings/second. When you have extra start and stop bits (i.e.
the baud rate is higher than the real data rate.
The BCD format makes it possible to store real numbers in
Each byte is parted in two "nibbles" consisting of 4
A bit is the smallest unit a computer can use.
It can only have the value 0 or 1.
A byte consists of 8
bits and can get 2^8 = 256 different values.
The first bit is bit 0 and has the value 2^0 = 1. The second is bit 1 with 2^1 = 2. Then up to bit 7
with a value of 2^7 = 128. When you set the bits 3 and 7 you get the value 2^3+2^7 = 8+128 = 136.
A chip technology which has a low power consumption.
A compiler translates a
program before running it to
So the program gets much faster than with an
But you can find errors only in the compiler and this is not that easy.
Central Processing Unit. This complex chip does the work in a computer.
It executes the commands in its memory and can communicate with other devices through its
The DEF key is used to start
If you write a line like 10 "A" Program... you can start it with DEF + A, too!
An emulator can make your computer "playing" another device.
The pocket computer sends a certain
byte after a program transmission.
After a reset this is &1A.
A command which can return a value.
HB = high byte. It is the upper part of a
A header contains necessary information. For example, the RAM cards get a header
when initializing. This header contains information about size,
reserve mode, etc.
Each with DIM initialized
variable gets a header, too,
which stores size, length, name and type (number or
The hexadecimal system uses 16 values for each digit instead of 10 like the decimal system.
The digits 10-15 are replaced by A-F. To mark these type of number, a small h or & symbol are used.
An interface connects a computer to other devices.
An interpreter executes a
step by step. So you can find errors very fast but the program gets quite slow.
LB = low byte. It is the lower part of a
This code is sent at the end of each line during a
CR means Chr(13) and LF = Chr(10), CR+LF is both.
When you access data in memory (i.e. display) there is an area where the same data is stored.
When you change data, the data in the second area is changed, too. So this area is mapped.
Machine language consists of numbers which make the
CPU do certain things. To
write machine language, an Assembler
is used. So you don't have to know the numbers but you have to write
mnemonics. Some commands need parameters
which are added behind the mnemonic.
A mnemonic is an easy to remember word for a
machine language command.
You use mnemonics in an
assembler. Example: LIA is a mnemonic.
An operator is a symbol which means addition, subtraction, multiplication, division but also
logical operators which calculate with
bits like AND, OR or NOT.
There is an even and an odd parity. So you can detect errors in
bit is added after the data bits. If the
number of high data bits is even an even parity bit is set and vice versa.
A pointer contains an
address. It points to a memory location.
Example: The BASIC pointer.
It points to the beginning of the BASIC program.
Ports are digital input and output lines from the
They can be read and set with certain commands.
In this mode you can edit
A program is a sequence of commands which have a certain purpose.
A BASIC program
for example consists of BASIC commands.
RAM = Random Access Memory. This is memory which can be written to.
A register is a memory location inside the
CPU. You can read and write to registers using
certain commands. Some registers are only for internal purposes and can't be read.
The reserve mode allows to edit the shortcuts you can insert by pressing SHIFT + letter.
ROM = Read Only Memory. This kind of memory is only for reading. Any write access will be
ignored. In PC-1360 the ROM is divided up in banks. There are 8 banks and
the internal ROM of the CPU.
In this mode you can run programs
but you can't change them.
The serial interface is a common
The protocol consists of a start bit,
parity bit and
stop bits. The speed is defined with the
An area in the memory of the
CPU. Here the
CPU stores the return addresses of
the programs which call subroutines.
A string is a chain of characters in
ASCII code. Each character needs one
byte in memory.
Variables are areas in memory which contain data like numbers or text.
They have a name which makes access possible. PC-1360 allows only up to 2 characters for a name:
A, AB and B2 are valid names. Forbidden are symbols or spaces and you can't use a number for the
first character or BASIC
commands. Assign a value to a variable with =. Example: A = 10
To store text to a variable you must add a dollar sign to the name: AB$ = "Text". The text must have "! Such a variable contains a string. Variables can be arrays, too.
A word consists of 2
a LB and
The value of a word is HB * 256 + LB.